Ce court article décrit comment faire tourner un noeud Ethereum sur n’importe quel OS.


Noeud sur Rinkeby

With Docker

docker pull ethereum/client-go:latest
mkdir ~/.geth-rinkeby
docker run --name eth -p 8546:8546 -v ~/.geth-rinkeby:/geth -it \
           ethereum/client-go --rinkeby --ws --ipcdisable \
           --wsaddr 0.0.0.0 --wsorigins="*" --datadir /geth

Pour détacher le running container, sans le stopper, vous pouvez utiliser les commandes suivantes: Ctrl + P, Ctrl + Q

Si le container est stoppé, vous pouvez le relancer avec la commande suivante: docker start -i eth


Si vous avez un résultat similaire à ceci dans le terminal, vous êtes tout bon:

INFO [12-16|21:24:32.532] Block synchronisation started
INFO [12-16|21:24:32.589] Looking for peers                        peercount=1 tried=61 static=0
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.260] Imported new block headers               count=192 elapsed=52.722ms  number=192 hash="8c570c…ba360c" age=3y8mo3w
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.262] Downloader queue stats                   receiptTasks=0 blockTasks=0 itemSize=639.74B throttle=8192
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.262] Migrated ancient blocks                  count=1   elapsed="111.458µs"
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.283] Imported new block receipts              count=54  elapsed=20.916ms    number=54  hash="dafe6e…02bf13" age=3y8mo3w size=34.33KiB
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.684] Imported new state entries               count=222 elapsed="4.869µs"   processed=222 pending=3553 trieretry=0 coderetry=0 duplicate=0 unexpected=0
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.694] Imported new block receipts              count=138 elapsed=40.089ms    number=192 hash="8c570c…ba360c" age=3y8mo3w size=86.38KiB
INFO [12-16|21:24:36.725] Imported new block headers               count=192 elapsed=77.269ms    number=384 hash="6d95fa…a59e49" age=3y8mo3w

Without Docker

# Install Geth
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ethereum

# Verify Geth version
geth version check

# Upgrade Geth
sudo apt-get upgrade geth
mkdir ~/.rinkeby-ethereum
geth --rinkeby --datadir ~/.rinkeby-ethereum  --syncmode "fast" --graphql --cache=2048 --maxpeers=128 --metrics --rpc --rpcapi "eth,net,web3,personal,web3" --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0" --rpcport 9545 --ws --ws.addr "0.0.0.0" --ws.port 9546

Run 2 nodes Rinkeby on the same machine

mkdir ~/.rinkeby-ethereum-docker-ethereum-one
docker run --name ethereum-one-rinkeby \
           -p 8545:8545 -p 8546:8546 -p 30303:30303 \
           -v ~/.rinkeby-ethereum-docker-ethereum-one:/geth \
           ethereum/client-go --rinkeby --datadir /geth --graphql  --rpcapi "eth,net,web3,personal,web3" --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0" --ws --ws.addr "0.0.0.0" --syncmode "fast" 


mkdir ~/.rinkeby-ethereum-docker-ethereum-two
docker run --name ethereum-two-rinkeby \
           -p 9545:8545 -p 9546:8546 -p 30304:30303 \
           -v ~/.rinkeby-ethereum-docker-ethereum-two:/geth \
           ethereum/client-go --rinkeby --datadir /geth --graphql  --rpcapi "eth,net,web3,personal,web3" --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0" --ws --ws.addr "0.0.0.0" --syncmode "fast" 

Mainnet

With Docker

docker pull ethereum/client-go:latest
mkdir ~/.geth
docker run --name eth -p 8546:8546 -v ~/.geth:/geth -it \
           ethereum/client-go --syncmode fast --ws --ipcdisable \
           --wsaddr 0.0.0.0 --wsorigins="*" --datadir /geth

Dev purpose below. Attention --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0" n’est pas secure dans une environnement live

mkdir -p ~/ethereum/data
cd ~/ethereum
sudo docker run --name geth -itd -p 8546:8546 -p 8545:8545 -p 30303:30303 -v data:/root/.ethereum ethereum/client-go:latest --rpc --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0"
sudo docker update --restart unless-stopped geth
sudo docker logs -f geth

  • 8545 TCP: HTTP JSON RPC API
  • 8546 TCP: WebSocket JSON RPC API
  • 30303 TCP et UDP: P2P protocol running the network
  • 30304 UDP: P2P protocol’s new peer discovery overlay



Without Docker

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ethereum
geth --syncmode "fast"
# Pour un récupérer un testnet
# geth --ropsten --syncmode "fast" 

geth --syncmode "fast" --graphql --cache=2048 --maxpeers=128 --metrics --rpc --rpcapi "eth,net,web3,personal,web3" --rpcaddr "0.0.0.0" --rpcport 8545 --ws --ws.addr "0.0.0.0" --ws.port 8546

# --rpcvhosts "geth.domain.com"


“Full” Sync: Récupère les block headers, les block bodies et valide chaque élément depuis le block genesis.

Fast Sync: Récupère les block headers, les block bodies, et ne process que les transactions à partir du block actuel - 64. Ensuite il récupère un snapshot state et réalise une sorte synchronization full.

Light Sync: Ne récupère que le current state. Pour vérifier les éléments, il a besoin de demander aux full (archive) nodes les 3 feuilles correspondantes.

Dans les dernières version de Geth - 64 est paramétrable avec le paramètre fsMinFullBlocks.


Vérifier l’état de synchronisation

geth attach
eth.syncing
eth.blockNumber

Se connecter à son noeud local via Javascript

# Installer NVM
curl -o- https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nvm-sh/nvm/v0.38.0/install.sh | bash
echo "export NVM_NODEJS_ORG_MIRROR=http://nodejs.org/dist" >> ~/.bashrc
source ~/.bashrc
nvm ls-remote

# Installer NodeJS
nvm install v12.22.0
nvm use v12.22.0
nvm use default v12.22.0

# Installer Web3
npm install web3 --save

Créer un fichier test.js et ajouter le contenu suivant:

const Web3 = require("web3")
//const web3 = new Web3("https://cloudflare-eth.com")
const web3 = new Web3("http://localhost:8545")

/*
web3.eth.isSyncing((error, sync) => {
  if (!error && sync) {
    console.log(sync.currentBlock);
    console.log(sync.highestBlock);
  }
});
*/

async function getBlockNumber() {
  const latestBlockNumber = await web3.eth.getBlockNumber()
  console.log(latestBlockNumber)
  return latestBlockNumber
}
getBlockNumber()

Exécuter la commande suivante node test.js


Lire les informations d’un Smart Contract (CALL)

Ajouter le code suivant avant de relancer la commande node test.js:

const ERC20TransferABI = [
  {
    constant: false,
    inputs: [
      {
        name: "_to",
        type: "address",
      },
      {
        name: "_value",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    name: "transfer",
    outputs: [
      {
        name: "",
        type: "bool",
      },
    ],
    payable: false,
    stateMutability: "nonpayable",
    type: "function",
  },
  {
    constant: true,
    inputs: [
      {
        name: "_owner",
        type: "address",
      },
    ],
    name: "balanceOf",
    outputs: [
      {
        name: "balance",
        type: "uint256",
      },
    ],
    payable: false,
    stateMutability: "view",
    type: "function",
  },
]
const DAI_ADDRESS = "0x6b175474e89094c44da98b954eedeac495271d0f"
const daiToken = new web3.eth.Contract(ERC20TransferABI, DAI_ADDRESS)
const senderAddress = "0x8bfb847d85b7bde4596888ae08fa7863752ffcf6"
daiToken.methods.balanceOf(senderAddress).call(function (err, res) {
  if (err) {
    console.log("An error occured", err)
    return
  }
  console.log("The balance is: ", res)
})

Output:

12154947 The balance is: 12558880673328618209762

Adresse prise au hasard sur Etherscan. Cela correspond à environ 12,558.880673328618209762 DAI


La même chose en Python

sudo apt-get install python3-dev
sudo update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/python python /usr/bin/python3 1
curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/pip/2.7/get-pip.py --output get-pip.py
sudo python get-pip.py
sudo apt install ipython3
pip install web3
pip install 'web3[tester]'
python -m ipython
In [1]: from web3 import Web3
In [2]: Web3.toWei(1, 'ether')
Out[2]: 1000000000000000000
In [3]: Web3.fromWei(500000000, 'gwei')
Out[3]: Decimal('0.5')
#In [4]: w3 = Web3(Web3.EthereumTesterProvider())
In [4]: w3 = Web3(Web3.HTTPProvider('http://127.0.0.1:8545'))
In [5]: w3.isConnected()
Out[5]: True
In [6]: w3.eth.getBlock('latest')
Out[6]:
AttributeDict({'difficulty': 17179869184,
 'extraData': HexBytes('0x11bbe8db4e347b4e8c937c1c8370e4b5ed33adb3db69cbdb7a38e1e50b1b82fa'),
 'gasLimit': 5000,
 'gasUsed': 0,
 'hash': HexBytes('0xd4e56740f876aef8c010b86a40d5f56745a118d0906a34e69aec8c0db1cb8fa3'),
 'logsBloom': HexBytes('0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'),
 'miner': '0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000',
 'mixHash': HexBytes('0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'),
 'nonce': HexBytes('0x0000000000000042'),
 'number': 0,
 'parentHash': HexBytes('0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'),
 'receiptsRoot': HexBytes('0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421'),
 'sha3Uncles': HexBytes('0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347'),
 'size': 540,
 'stateRoot': HexBytes('0xd7f8974fb5ac78d9ac099b9ad5018bedc2ce0a72dad1827a1709da30580f0544'),
 'timestamp': 0,
 'totalDifficulty': 17179869184,
 'transactions': [],
 'transactionsRoot': HexBytes('0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421'),
 'uncles': []})
In [7]: w3.eth.get_block(12345)
Out[7]:
AttributeDict({'difficulty': 735512610763,
 'extraData': HexBytes('0x476574682f76312e302e302f6c696e75782f676f312e342e32'),
 'gasLimit': 5000,
 'gasUsed': 0,
 'hash': HexBytes('0x767c2bfb3bdee3f78676c1285cd757bcd5d8c272cef2eb30d9733800a78c0b6d'),
 'logsBloom': HexBytes('0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000'),
 'miner': '0xad5C1768e5974C231b2148169da064e61910f31a',
 'mixHash': HexBytes('0x31d9ec7e3855aeba37fd92aa1639845e70b360a60f77f12eff530429ef8cfcba'),
 'nonce': HexBytes('0x549f882c5f356f85'),
 'number': 12345,
 'parentHash': HexBytes('0x4b3c1d7e65a507b62734feca1ee9f27a5379e318bd52ae62de7ba67dbeac66a3'),
 'receiptsRoot': HexBytes('0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421'),
 'sha3Uncles': HexBytes('0x1dcc4de8dec75d7aab85b567b6ccd41ad312451b948a7413f0a142fd40d49347'),
 'size': 539,
 'stateRoot': HexBytes('0xca495e22ed6b88c61714d129dbc8c94f5bf966ac581c09a57c0a72d0e55e7286'),
 'timestamp': 1438367030,
 'totalDifficulty': 3862140487204603,
 'transactions': [],
 'transactionsRoot': HexBytes('0x56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421'),
 'uncles': []})
In [8]: w3.eth.get_balance('0x742d35Cc6634C0532925a3b844Bc454e4438f44e')
Out [8]: 0

Voilà, nous avons vu comment démarrer un noeud Ethereum sur différents réseaux et comment nous y connecter via du code JS ou du code Python. Nous verrons dans un prochain article comment suivre les changements dans des Smart Contracts avec des WebSockets.


Monitoring

Je vous recommande d’installer une solution de monitoring comme Grafana InfluxDB pour monitorer et avoir de l’alerting sur votre noeud.

image

Il faudra alors démarrer Geth avec les flags suivants: --metrics --metrics.influxdb --metrics.influxdb.endpoint "http://0.0.0.0:8086" --metrics.influxdb.username "" --metrics.influxdb.password ""


Troubleshooting

Checkpoint challenge timed out, dropping: Start a timer to disconnect if the peer doesn’t reply in time (cf. https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/blob/master/eth/handler.go)

snapshot extension registration failed geth: Geth client is probably outdated

Imported new chain segment: means geth has downloaded some amount of blocks to be added to the chain. Look at age key to figure out the remaining quantity of blocks to download