I struggled a little bit with the installation on Apache Guacamole. I think this tutorial will help some people. I installed it on Ubuntu 18.04.

Install VNC

Install the following packages:

sudo apt-get install -y ubuntu-desktop gnome-panel gnome-settings-daemon metacity nautilus gnome-terminal tightvncserver

We are going to create a VNC startup script:

mkdir ~/.vnc

Create a VNC startup script at this location ~/.vnc/xstartup and enter this content:

Option 1: Pour Ubuntu 18.04 “classique” avec le desktop environment Gnome


xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
#x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
#x-window-manager &
# Fix to make GNOME work

vncconfig -iconic &
x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
x-window-manager &
gnome-panel &
gnome-settings-daemon &
nautilus &
metacity &
gnome-session-flashback &

Option 2: Pour Ubuntu Mate

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &
x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
x-window-manager &
mate-session &

Donner les droits d'exécution sur le fichier ~/.vnc/xstartup:

sudo chmod +x ~/.vnc/xstartup

Reconfigure the session manager:

sudo update-alternatives --config x-session-manager

Select: /usr/lib/gnome-flashback/gnome-flashback-metacity

Fix rights issue

sudo chown -R olivier:olivier /home/olivier/.cache/dconf

## Create VNC service

sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]

Enter the following content. Replace `olivier` by your username.

[Unit] Description=Start TightVNC server at startup After=syslog.target network.target

[Service] Type=forking User=olivier Group=olivier WorkingDirectory=/home/olivier

PIDFile=/home/olivier/.vnc/%H:%i.pid ExecStartPre=-/usr/bin/vncserver -kill :%i > /dev/null 2>&1 ExecStart=/usr/bin/vncserver -depth 24 -geometry 1280x800 :%i ExecStop=/usr/bin/vncserver -kill :%i

[Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target

Configure vncserver. To do so execute `vncserver` and enter a vnc password. Do not create a readonly password. When you are done kill the running server.

vncserver -kill :1

Start the service:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload sudo systemctl enable [email protected] sudo systemctl start [email protected]

## Install Guacamole

Create a install script and enter the following content:


Check if user is root or sudo

if ! [ $(id -u) = 0 ]; then echo “Please run this script as sudo or root”; exit 1 ; fi

Version number of Guacamole to install


Colors to use for output

YELLOW=’\033[1;33m’ BLUE=’\033[0;34m’ RED=’\033[0;31m’ GREEN=’\033[0;32m’ NC=’\033[0m’ # No Color

Log Location


Get script arguments for non-interactive mode

while [ “$1” != "” ]; do case $1 in -m | –mysqlpwd ) shift mysqlpwd="$1” ;; -g | –guacpwd ) shift guacpwd="$1” ;; -u | –mysqluser ) shift mysqluser="$1” ;; -d | –database ) shift DB="$1” ;; esac shift done

Checking if mysql user given

if [ -z “$mysqluser” ]; then mysqluser="guacamole_user” fi

Checking if database name given

if [ -z “$DB” ]; then DB="guacamole_db” fi

Get MySQL root password and Guacamole User password

if [ -n “$mysqlpwd” ] && [ -n “$guacpwd” ]; then mysqlrootpassword=$mysqlpwd guacdbuserpassword=$guacpwd else echo while true do read -s -p “Enter a MySQL ROOT Password: " mysqlrootpassword echo read -s -p “Confirm MySQL ROOT Password: " password2 echo [ “$mysqlrootpassword” = “$password2” ] && break echo “Passwords don't match. Please try again.” echo done echo while true do read -s -p “Enter a Guacamole User Database Password: " guacdbuserpassword echo read -s -p “Confirm Guacamole User Database Password: " password2 echo [ “$guacdbuserpassword” = “$password2” ] && break echo “Passwords don't match. Please try again.” echo done echo fi

debconf-set-selections «< “mysql-server mysql-server/root_password password $mysqlrootpassword” debconf-set-selections «< “mysql-server mysql-server/root_password_again password $mysqlrootpassword”

Ubuntu and Debian have different package names for libjpeg

Ubuntu and Debian versions have differnet package names for libpng-dev

Ubuntu 18.04 does not include universe repo by default

source /etc/os-release if [[ “${NAME}” == “Ubuntu” ]] then JPEGTURBO="libjpeg-turbo8-dev” if [[ “${VERSION_ID}” == “18.04” ]] then sed -i ‘s/bionic main$/bionic main universe/’ /etc/apt/sources.list fi if [[ “${VERSION_ID}” == “16.04” ]] then LIBPNG="libpng12-dev” else LIBPNG="libpng-dev” fi elif [[ “${NAME}” == “Debian” ]] then JPEGTURBO="libjpeg62-turbo-dev” if [[ “${PRETTY_NAME}” == “stretch” ]] then LIBPNG="libpng-dev” else LIBPNG="libpng12-dev” fi else echo “Unsupported Distro - Ubuntu or Debian Only” exit 1 fi

Update apt so we can search apt-cache for newest tomcat version supported

apt-get -qq update

Tomcat 8.0.x is End of Life, however Tomcat 7.x is not…

If Tomcat 8.5.x or newer is available install it, otherwise install Tomcat 7

I have not testing with Tomcat9…

if [[ $(apt-cache show tomcat8 | egrep “Version: 8.[5-9]” | wc -l) -gt 0 ]] then TOMCAT="tomcat8” else TOMCAT="tomcat7” fi

if [ -z $(command -v mysql) ] then MYSQL="mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common mysql-utilities” else MYSQL=”” fi

Uncomment to manually force a tomcat version


Install features

echo -e “${BLUE}Installing dependencies. This might take a few minutes…${NC}”

export DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive

apt-get -y install build-essential libcairo2-dev ${JPEGTURBO} ${LIBPNG} libossp-uuid-dev libavcodec-dev libavutil-dev
libswscale-dev libfreerdp-dev libpango1.0-dev libssh2-1-dev libtelnet-dev libvncserver-dev libpulse-dev libssl-dev
libvorbis-dev libwebp-dev ${MYSQL} libmysql-java ${TOMCAT} freerdp-x11
ghostscript wget dpkg-dev &» ${LOG}

if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed. See ${LOG}${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

Set SERVER to be the preferred download server from the Apache CDN

SERVER="http://apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi?action=download&filename=guacamole/${GUACVERSION}” echo -e “${BLUE}Downloading Files…${NC}”

Download Guacamole Server

wget -q –show-progress -O guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz ${SERVER}/source/guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed to download guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz” echo -e “${SERVER}/source/guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz${NC}” exit 1 fi echo -e “${GREEN}Downloaded guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz${NC}”

Download Guacamole Client

wget -q –show-progress -O guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war ${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed to download guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war” echo -e “${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war${NC}” exit 1 fi echo -e “${GREEN}Downloaded guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war${NC}”

Download Guacamole authentication extensions (Database)

wget -q –show-progress -O guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz ${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed to download guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz” echo -e “${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz” exit 1 fi echo -e “${GREEN}Downloaded guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz${NC}”

Download Guacamole authentication extensions (TOTP)

wget -q –show-progress -O guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz ${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed to download guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz” echo -e “${SERVER}/binary/guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz” exit 1 fi echo -e “${GREEN}Downloaded guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz${NC}”

echo -e “${GREEN}Downloading complete.${NC}”

Extract Guacamole files

tar -xzf guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz tar -xzf guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz tar -xzf guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.tar.gz

Make directories

mkdir -p /etc/guacamole/lib mkdir -p /etc/guacamole/extensions

Install guacd

cd guacamole-server-${GUACVERSION}

echo -e “${BLUE}Building Guacamole with GCC $(gcc –version | head -n1 | grep -oP ‘)\K.*’ | awk ‘{print $1}') ${NC}”

echo -e “${BLUE}Configuring. This might take a minute…${NC}” ./configure –with-init-dir=/etc/init.d &» ${LOG} if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed. See ${LOG}${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

echo -e “${BLUE}Running Make. This might take a few minutes…${NC}” make &» ${LOG} if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed. See ${LOG}${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

echo -e “${BLUE}Running Make Install…${NC}” make install &» ${LOG} if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed. See ${LOG}${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

ldconfig systemctl enable guacd cd ..

Get build-folder

BUILD_FOLDER=$(dpkg-architecture -qDEB_BUILD_GNU_TYPE)

Move files to correct locations

mv guacamole-${GUACVERSION}.war /etc/guacamole/guacamole.war ln -s /etc/guacamole/guacamole.war /var/lib/${TOMCAT}/webapps/ ln -s /usr/local/lib/freerdp/guac*.so /usr/lib/${BUILD_FOLDER}/freerdp/ ln -s /usr/share/java/mysql-connector-java.jar /etc/guacamole/lib/ cp guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}/mysql/guacamole-auth-jdbc-mysql-${GUACVERSION}.jar /etc/guacamole/extensions/ cp guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}/guacamole-auth-totp-${GUACVERSION}.jar /etc/guacamole/extensions/

Configure guacamole.properties

rm -f /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties touch /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties echo “mysql-hostname: localhost” » /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties echo “mysql-port: 3306” » /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties echo “mysql-database: ${DB}” » /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties echo “mysql-username: ${mysqluser}” » /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties echo “mysql-password: ${guacdbuserpassword}” » /etc/guacamole/guacamole.properties

restart tomcat

echo -e “${BLUE}Restarting tomcat…${NC}”

service ${TOMCAT} restart if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

Create guacamole_db and grant $mysqluser permissions to it

SQL code

SQLCODE=” create database ${DB}; create user if not exists ‘${mysqluser}'@‘localhost’ identified by "${guacdbuserpassword}"; GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE ON guacamole_db.* TO ‘${mysqluser}'@‘localhost’; flush privileges;”

Execute SQL code

echo ${SQLCODE} | mysql -u root -p${mysqlrootpassword}

Add Guacamole schema to newly created database

echo -e “Adding db tables…” cat guacamole-auth-jdbc-${GUACVERSION}/mysql/schema/*.sql | mysql -u root -p${mysqlrootpassword} ${DB} if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

Ensure guacd is started

service guacd start


echo -e “${BLUE}Cleanup install files…${NC}”

rm -rf guacamole-* if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo -e “${RED}Failed${NC}” exit 1 else echo -e “${GREEN}OK${NC}” fi

echo -e “${BLUE}Installation Complete\nhttp://localhost:8080/guacamole/\nDefault login guacadmin:guacadmin\nBe sure to change the password.${NC}”

Give that script the execution right:

chmod +x install_guacamole.sh

Install Guacamole:


## Configure Guacamole

Create a new user and create 2 connections (one for SSH and one for VNC).
This is very easy I do not describe this part.

At the end you will have this:



## Configurer un reverse proxy Nginx

Installer Nginx:

apt install nginx

Activer le service:

systemctl enable nginx

Générer un certificat SSL/TLS auto-signé:

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/guacamole-selfsigned.key -out /etc/ssl/certs/guacamole-selfsigned.crt

Configurer Nginx. Créer le fichier `/etc/nginx/sites-available/nginx-guacamole-ssl` et ajoutez le contenu suivant:

server { listen 80; server_name guacamole.example.com; return 301 https://$host$request_uri; } server { listen 443 ssl; server_name guacamole.example.com;

root /var/www/html;

index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

    ssl_certificate /etc/ssl/certs/guacamole-selfsigned.crt;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/ssl/private/guacamole-selfsigned.key;

ssl_protocols TLSv1.2 TLSv1.3;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on; 
ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/dhparam.pem;
ssl_ecdh_curve secp384r1;
ssl_session_timeout  10m;
ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:10m;
resolver valid=300s;
resolver_timeout 5s; 
add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=63072000; includeSubDomains; preload";
add_header X-Frame-Options DENY;
add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";

access_log  /var/log/nginx/guac_access.log;
error_log  /var/log/nginx/guac_error.log;

location / {
        proxy_pass http://guacamole.example.com:8080/guacamole/;
        proxy_buffering off;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $http_connection;
        proxy_cookie_path /guacamole/ /;


Générer un certificat Deffie-Hellman pour avoir une clé d'échange. Le flag `-dsaparam` est ajouté pour accélérer la génération:

openssl dhparam -dsaparam -out /etc/nginx/dhparam.pem 4096

Activer la configuration Nginx:

ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/nginx-guacamole-ssl /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

Vérifier la bonne configuration:

nginx -t nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

Restart Nginx:

systemctl restart nginx